@ India's encounter with Islam dates back to the early age of Islam. From the 10th century to the 12th century, the influence of the Ghazna and Ghur Dynasty, whose main force was in Afghanistan, invaded India from the Northwest. However, the Islamization of India occurred after a sovereign power was established in Delhi at the end of the 12th century. Only a mosque in Badrsvar has been reported as Islamic architecture in India built before the 12th century.
1. Explanation by period
2. Explanation by region
3. Explanation of terms
@@‘Stone construction technique
@@@@(Grid Type and 12 pillared Type, Corbelled Arch Style and True Arch Style)
1.Explanation by period
‘The end of the 12th century - The beginning of the 13th century
@Islamic architecture and remains from the end of the 12th century to the beginning of the 13th century include mosques, and mausoleums. Often existing Hindu and Jain temples were borrowed or indigenous techniques of stone architecture were borrowed to construct these buildings. Significant remnants of this kind include Qutb Masjid in Delhi and Arhai Din-ka Jhompra Mosque in Ajmer. In these buildings, arch walls were employed, as if to hide the mosque architecture built by a post-beam structure. However, the arches themselves were not true arches, but corbelled arches, which were made piling up materials horizontally. These arches were employed as symbols of Islam and their shape was also used for mihrab showing the direction of qibla, toward Mecca. In addition, the shape of tower, minaret was employed, and came to take root in this country.
‘The middle of the 13th century - the middle
of the 14th century
@From the mid-13th century to the mid-14th century, builders in Delhi mastered the true arch technique, i.e. True Arch Style, which is observed in Balban's Tomb. In mosques, multi-pillared rooms for congregation were constructed, where arches were uniformly lined up horizontally and vertically to crown a vault dome on. On mausoleums, a true arch style dome was crowned. In the westernmost region of Multan, there are some mausoleums which shows similar features to those in the Middle East. In addition, iwans and large domes in a style similar to Middle Eastern architecture appeared in Delhi, examples of which are Begampur Mosque and Jama'at Khana Mosque. From these, we can assume that artisans from Iran and Central Asia came to India and their techniques were actively introduced. Some of the techniques took root in Delhi and mixed with the native style. By the late 14th century, multip-pillared rooms using arch construction on grids spread in local mosques. Also seen are a canopy tomb with a dome built on a square plan surrounded by thick walls, and a 12-pillared type tomb that employs post and beam construction with a true arch style dome.
@Islamic power, whose main force was in Delhi, extended its control to local areas and Islamic architecture spread accordingly. When independent governments were established in Jaunpur and Bengal in the east, Malwa and Deccan (Gulbarga) in the south, Gujarat in the west in the late 14th century, construction of Islamic architecture started in these areas. As seen in Jama Masjid in Daulatabad, first came the borrowing of Hindu architecture, likewise the time that Islamic architecture was first brought to Delhi over 100 years ago. However, the situation did not last for a long time and each ruler started establishing his own style through construction of huge monuments like Jama Masjid, which display local influence. Rather than a local difference in technique, such development with rich local identity may have originated in the fact that rulers saw architecture as a method to publicize their power and felt propelled to develop their own style.
‘The end of the 14th century - The mid-16th
@From the end of the 14th century to the mid-16th century, new styles were established in local areas. In addition to the differences in native architectural culture, architectural style in local areas reflected the difference in how each local dynasty viewed architecture and sought a new styles. Subsequently, the styles came to show diversity. In comparison to this, architecture in Delhi from the 15th century to the mid-16th century showed a decline in the momentum to seek large-scale architecture or new styles, despite the fact that the number of remnants increased. This can be regarded as a reflection of the politically and economically unstable conditions, due to the expedition by the Timur(*) at the end of the 14th century and the invasion of Afghan tribe later on.
‘The mid-16th century - The 17th century
@A transition in Islamic architecture in India occurred in the mid-16th century. Great influence on this was brought by an establishment of the Great Mughalid Empire, following the establishment of Mughalid and the extension of its power to all parts of India, merging Bengal, Malwa and Gujarat. Also the exerting influenxe was the Baihmanid Dynasty in Deccan divided into governments in Golconda, Bijapur, Bidar and Ahmadnagar. Architecture in Fathepur Sikri, Allahabad and Agra under the Mughalid assymilates Indian local styles in their details, although they are based on the style of the Timur Dynasty, which is famous in connection with the Mughalid royal family. The architecture of Golconda, Bijapur and Bidar in Deccan shows a unique regional development of the Baihmanid style, which was greatly influenced by the Timur Dynasty, with Hindu elements added in each Deccan region.
2.Explanation by region@@@@
In Bengal, in the construction of Adina Masjid in 1370s, a great iwan with a tunnel vault was introduced. It was unprecedented in Indian Islamic architecture at that time. Considering the period and its style, a connection to Ali Shah Mosque in Tabriz under the Iranian Il Khanid Dynasty is assumed. There was no example following the form of the great iwan. However, the form of the sub-prayer room and tile decorations, etc. in Adina Masjid was inherited by the later mosques. In the 15th century in Pandua and from the late 15th century to the early 16th century in Gaur, brick mosques with lines of small domes at the tops and those with great domes with thick construction walls became a local feature. Under the Mugharid, some construction details were taken from Bengal, an example of which is Bengali Roof. At the same time, the Mugharid architecture like Lukochori Darwaza, which was not seen in Bengal, was constructed. Consequently, the eclectic style of the two developed.
In Deccan, Jama Masjid in Gulbarga constructed in1369 is assumed to have been built, borrowing an arch technique from Delhi of the time, judging from its form. However, it should be noted that this mosque has a prayer room with a great dome, which was not popular in Delhi after that period. After the Baihmanid Dynasty moved its capital to Bidar in 1428, Deccan architecture came to be influenced by the Timur architecture. It is evident in the use of crossed arches, tiles and madrasa at Mahmud Gawan. While from the mid-16th century, Bengal, Gjarat and Malwa became under the power of the Mugharid and their architectural style changed, there is a consistency in the style in Deccan from the 14th century to the late 17th century.
@In Gujarat, presently existing architecture from the 14th century in Cambhayat and Bharuch was built using converted materials from Hindu temples. After the establishment of the Ahmad Shahi Dynasty and the change of its capital to Ahmadabad, this conditions did not change and mosques and tombs with post and beam structure continued to be built. Architecture in Gujarat has the strongest Hindu elements among Indian Islamic architecture. Jama Masjid in Ahmadabad built in 1423 is the most prominent. It has two minarets at either sides of the central great arch, and a 12-pillared dome in a three-tiered well hole style. It shows a unique eclectic architectural style, remaining devoted to Indian native form. There are some exceptions where the builders tried to part from this style. However, an eclectic style ruled this region until the early 16th century. Nevertheless, around the time of the Mughalid conquer, interest in arch structure increased. Consequently, a new style, which is seen in Sidi Sayyid Mosque and Shah Alam Mosque, was born.
@In Malwa region, which is situated between Gujarat and Delhi, Dhar architecture shows a state in which mosques were still built using converted materials. However, Jama Masjid in Mandu built in the early 15th century shows a unique style that is different from both Gujarati and Ahmadabad style. It is similar to Deccan architecture, particularly in that arches and a great dome are often provided. However, while Deccan buildings are coated by plaster on the surface, Mandu architecture employs stones on the surface. As a result of the use of stone pillars, it looks slender compared to Deccani Pier. There are many buildings built in the period from the mid 15th to the early 16th century in Mandu. Mandu became a favourite place of the Mugalid emperors. An amalgamation of water and architecture seen in Mandu architecture is greatly influenced by the Mughalid garden.
‘The middle reaches of the Ganga
@In the middle reaches of the Ganga between Delhi and Bengal, there are Arhai Kangra Masjid in Varanasi and a unique mosque complex built in the 15th century in Jaunpur. There seems to be an intention to follow Islamic architecture in the Middle East in these buildings, judging by the fact that they have a large iwan-like pylon in the middle of prayer room, and great domes connected to each other behind the prayer room. However, compared to buildings in Bengal, Deccan and Malwa, these structures are regarded as having stronger local influence, using a lot of ashlars, and post and beam structure in corridors, etc. The last examples of this group are the three mausoleums in Sasaram built in the early 16th century. Regarding these mausoleums, a connection with Delhi architecture needs to be considered.
3.Explanation of terms
‘Stone construction technique(Grid Type and 12 pillared Type, Corbelled Arch Style and True Arch Style)@
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