Grid type and 12 pillared type
True arch and corbelled arch

Space creation by native masonry-Grid type and 12 pillared type

 Post and beam structure is a native Indian technique. In this method, beams are placed on pillars, creating a space surrounded by them, and a ceiling is placed on it. There are two methods of creating a space in this way. One method is to build pillars on a grid and place beams in a square. Then put a flat ceiling or laternen deck on the top. In this case, the span of pillars should be maximum of 2 metres. This method is not appropriate for a wider space, as pillars would stand together in large numbers. Another method is to build 4 pillars in each side of a square, 12 pillars in total. Beams are placed in a square. Crossbeams are placed at the corners, which stand diagonally so that a corbelled dome can be placed on top. Using this method enables one to create a space with a diameter of approximately 7 metres. We call the former "Grid type" and the latter "12-pillared type".

How to pile up stones -True arches and corbelled arch

 In case of stone or brick-made architecture, small parts are often piled up to create a huge structure. This method of building is generally called "masonry". When a curved surface like an arch or dome is constructed in the masonry, the space may be made by piling up small pieces. Each one of the pieces is pushed to the front little by little; this is called "corbelled arch style". On the other hand, there exists a method of arranging small pieces in a curve so as to make a state in which each part pushes to hold together; it is called "true-arch style". With corbel style, it is impossible to construct a huge arch or dome as normal force works in each part. However, with true arches, normal force is transmitted to walls or piers that support the arch or dome, enabling the construction of a huge space. In the Hindu and Jain architecture in the pre-Islam period in India, domes and arches were not so popular. In addition, when a curved surface was constructed, corbelled arch style was employed. In the Middle East, especially in brick made buildings in Mesopotamia to Iran, corbelled arch style developed from an early age. Islamic architecture in the Middle East succeeded the construction technique, acquiring a way to construct a huge domed space using a lot of arches.

Map of the city surveyed
List of photographs by facility