The 9th sultan of the Baihmani, Ahmad Shah, moved the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1422. Before this time, Bidar was merely a local city of the Baihmani Dynasty. After the transfer of the capital, he went on an expedition to various places and brought religious and political prosperity to Bidar. He constructed the foundation of the city of Bidar and constructed the palace of Persian style.

 His son, the 10th sultan of the Baihmani Dynasty, Ala ad-Din, succeeded him in 1436. He built his father's mausoleum in Ashutur in the eastern outskirts of Bidar and a mausoleum for a saint, Shah Khalil Ullah, between Ashutur and Bidar. It is also known that he had built a great hospital in Bidar and a garden pavilion of Nimatabad, although they do not exist anymore. He reigned for over 20 years until 1458. It is said that he had a liking for culture, and he did not pay much attention to politics.

 The 11th sultan of the Baihmani Dynasty, Humayun, died at the age of 21, after a reign of only 3 years. During his brief reign, he appointed his 8-year-old son Nizam as a heir, and Persian Prime Minister Mahmud Gawan and Jahan Turk, Nizam's mother, a regent.

 Nizam Shah became the 12th sultan in 1461. During his reign, Malwa's ruler Mahmud Khalji marched to Bidar. The sultan asked the Gjarati ruler Mahumud Shah to help and recovered Bidar. However, he died suddenly in 1463.

 The son of the 11th sultan Humayun became the 13th sultan Muhammad Shah 3rd. He gained the support of Prime Minister Mahmad Gawan and oversaw the last prosperous period of the Baihmani Dynasty. He divided the four states of the Baihmani into eight and controlled each of them, and expanding the land. However, in spite of his innocence, Mahmad Gawan was executed in 1481, due to the conspiracy of a group of Prime Ministers of Deccan. The sultan, who knew the truth and suffered a broken heart, also died the following year.

 The 14th sultan Mahmud Shah ascended to the throne in 1482. In his period, Prime Ministers contended with each other and local dynasties became independent. The Baihmani Dynasty became a puppet government. Bidar was controlled by Qasim Barid, Ahmadnagar by Malik Ahmad Bahri Nizam ul-Mulk, Berar by Fatuf Ullah Imad ul-Mulk and Bijapur by Yusuf Adil Khan.

 After 1518, the sons and grandsons of Mahmud Shah ascended to the throne for short periods one after another. Baihmani control ended in 1525 under the 18th sultan Karim Ullah and the Barid family came into power in Bidar.

 Quasim Barid was a Turkish from Georgia. He was brought to Deccan when he was young and served the 13th sultan of the Baihmani Dynasty. However, he announced independence under the 14th sultan Mahmud Shah and gained the position of the highest commander of the Baihmani Dynasty.
(Naoko Fukami)




Back to BIDAR